English and Foreign Languages University
Self-perception is defined by how an individual commits to and identifies with a particular group; the absence of a mature identity related to the self, which stems from a personal as well as a collective socio-cultural level, leads to a crisis producing doubt about one’s social function and often a sense of loss to one’s personality. Jimmy Porter, the protagonist of John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger, was born in an era of lost identity and purpose in the English consciousness caused by the post-war situation during the 1950s. He portrays the youth of the time who felt that life was meaningless; this void and lack of identity is perhaps the most fundamental aspect when studying Jimmy. The Eriksonian concept of “identity crisis” attempts to warrant that Jimmy, along with an entire generation born before the Second World War felt a lack of purpose and meaning. This paper aims to investigate Jimmy’s behavioural patterns in an attempt to study his personality and establish whether he is an individual suffering from a pathological case of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) caused by the trauma of the identity crisis he faces on a personal and collective level. Collective memories, which are individually held memories, help shape personal identity. Investigations explicate those individuals with a deficit in self-narrative create gaps and discontinuities in self-perception and behaviour. The inability to construct a coherent self-narrative and a painful experience of meaninglessness, chaos, and emptiness may manifest in individuals with PDs (personality disorders).
Keywords: Look Back in Anger, Angry Young Man, Jimmy Porter, Identity, Narcissistic Personality Disorder.
In trying to understand and define ‘identity,’ one is faced with a multitude of difficulties primarily as it is related to various theoretical and interdisciplinary traditions, each focusing on the different aspects of identity and use of different research methodologies; it “is located in the borderland between several scientific disciplines, including developmental, clinical, and personality psychology, and sociology, philosophy, anthropology, and political science” (Jørgensen, 2018, p. 107). Erik Erikson was perhaps the first psychologist who addressed the concept of ‘identity.’ According to him, identity was constructed through social interactions and experimented with various behaviours and roles. Erikson approached identity from various perspectives and spanning an individual’s entire lifetime; however never arrived at a precise definition (as cited in Sokol, 2009, p.139).
Perceiving identity as an ever-evolving entity that shapes our life is a terrifying thought. It is the understanding that humans are not always in control of themselves or how they experience things. There is without a shadow of a doubt that society and the memory of its people are reflected in the kinds of literature of the time, especially if it were a cultural movement as significant as to produce the ‘silent generation.’ From a social and cognitive perspective, identity refers to the mental construct, that is, “the traits and characteristics, social relations, roles, and social group memberships that define who one is” (Oyserman, Elmore, & Smith, 2012, p. 69).
For a considerable time, identity has been associated with individualism and self-definition; nevertheless, identity creation is also linked to other factors such as the social and contemporary context. The formation of a mature identity allows a person to traverse this world, connect with others, and assist in controlling emotions. This concept of collective identity “is grounded in one’s membership in larger social groups and one’s inclination to identify with a specific religion, nation, or ethnic group” (Jørgensen, 2018, p. 111). Alberto Melucci introduced his model of collective identity based on studies of various social movements drawing on the works of sociologists Alain Touraine and Alessandro Pizzorno. He argued that “Collective identity is an interactive and shared definition produced by several individuals (or groups at a more complex level) and concerned with the orientations of action and the field of opportunities and constraints in which the action takes place” (Melucci, 1995, p. 44). It can be said that memory and experience shape the self, as S. B. Klein and S. Nichols (2012) put it, “Memory for past episodes provides a sense of personal identity” (p. 677). As suggested by Yasar (2015),
The connection between the past, the present, and the future is a necessity for the integration of the individual into the social order. It is a necessary element of social and personal memory. Hence the lack of connection with the past destroys individuality and the personal identity on the psychological level. Jimmy Porter’s obsession with the present condition derives from the fact that he cannot get (a) connection with his own past and it destroys his personal and social identity (p. 21).
In a modern psychoanalytical context, the idea takes on several forms: personal, social, and collective. ‘I think, therefore I am’ concerning the development of individual identity formation thus takes on a fresh perspective as the personal act of thought and identity must therefore accommodate a social prism. Osborne’s play Look Back in Anger portrays an entire generation’s sensibilities of the Angry Young Man movement, and Jimmy Porter became its spokesman. As such, Jimmy is perhaps the most recognisable advocate for the millions of angry young men existing in post-war Britain.
Jimmy was born in an era of lost identity and purpose; this generational identity crisis, coupled with the trauma he endured at an early age caused by the death of his father, reveals that he is an insecure human. Being unable to link the dull present with what is to come is perhaps the most terrifying thing imaginable. His nostalgia springs not from a world he had lost but from an imagined? world he never had: “If you’ve no world of your own, it’s rather pleasant to regret the passing of someone else’s” (Osborne, 2016, p. 11). The play is born from a void created by the changing world scenario in the English psyche. The young, educated youth portrayed in Look Back in Anger is a confused soul, coupled with the post-war changeover in international politics further raises doubts to which he finds no answer. As Yasar (2015) posits,
The post-war era is a transition period, from modernism to postmodernism, for British society and the individuals of the reconstruction era have difficulties deriving from inability to get connection with the post-war institutions and values that had been the sustaining values for ages on the sociological level for British people (p. 14).
Jimmy portrays the youth of the time who felt that life was meaningless; it can be hypothesised that due to the post-war situation in Britain and elsewhere, individuals, especially those born prior to the Second World War, felt a lack of identity. For Jimmy, this can perhaps be his greatest insecurity. Jimmy Porter “was born out of his time” (Osborne, 2016, p. 96), and this identity crisis turned him into an “angry young man”. Dan P. McAdams, in “Psychology of Life Stories” writes:
[I]dentity itself takes the form of a story, complete with setting, scenes, character, plot, and theme. (…) Life stories are based on biographical facts, but they go considerably beyond the facts as people selectively appropriate aspects of their experience and imaginatively construe both past and future to construct stories that make sense to them and to their audiences, that vivify and integrate life and make it more or less meaningful. Life stories are psychosocial constructions, coauthored by the person himself or herself and the cultural context within which that person’s life is embedded and given meaning (2001, p. 101).
Studies like those of. Lind et al. (2020), Dimaggio, G. (2011) suggests that individuals, especially those suffering from PDs (personality disorder), experience a deficit in their self-narrative (life story), thus creating gaps and discontinuities in self-perception and behaviour. As Dimaggio (2011) argues, “Patients suffering from certain PDs are unable to provide elements from their autobiographies and instead resort to abstract, theory-like statements (…). In typical impoverished narratives, the landscape lacks detail and pictorial quality, with scarcely a reference to where and when a scene took place” (p. 166). The inability to construct a coherent self-narrative and a painful experience of meaninglessness, chaos, and emptiness manifest in individuals with PDs.
Jimmy and the Identity Crisis
In psychology, the term “identity crisis” introduced by Erikson means an individual who is unable to obtain an ego identity. Levesque (2011) suggests,
Ego identity is the sense of identity that provides individuals with the ability to experience their sense of who they are, and also act on that sense, in a way that has continuity and sameness. (…) Having a strong sense of ego identity, e.g., means having the ability to synthesize different “selves” into one coherent identity throughout time, creating an inner coherence and sameness (pp.1144).
Unlike many other developmental theorists of his era, Erikson’s psychosocial theory of human development covers the entire lifespan, including adulthood. Erikson defined a “crisis” as a sequence of internal tensions tied to developmental phases. Erikson’s theory states that how a person handles a crisis determines their personal identity and future development.
The character of Jimmy Porter in Osborne’s Look Back in Anger belongs to a generation that has been bereft of its brilliant history, has a bland and uncertain present, and will confront an aimless future. As a result, an aloof, aimless, purposeless, confused, and hopeless generation was produced. The fundamental concern at the time was the identity crisis. Throughout the play, Jimmy Porter expresses his dissatisfaction with society, class and sex issues, and even his hate for religion. As Sierz (2008) perceptively puts it, “Look Back in Anger is not just an old play, it’s a cultural battlefield” (p. 3).
We find him continuously making complaints against the society’s corruption, injustice and irregularity: “I suppose people of our generation aren’t able to die for good causes any longer. We had all that done for us, in the thirties and the forties, when we were still kids. There aren’t any good, brave causes left” (Osborne, 2016, p. 89). We find him constantly abusing and cursing society, the system, and even his near ones, that is because “Jimmy Porter like the rest of the younger educated lot, feels cheated. And this dissatisfaction ignites Jimmy’s anger. Nothing really happens for Jimmy.” (Mukherjee, 2016, p. 113).
“Maybe Jimmy’s aggression is a way of concealing his insecurities, doubts and weaknesses [emphasis added]” (Sierz, 2008, p. 17); he is unable to lessen his personal agonies or the people of his class and fails to convey his idealism to others “this sense of loss, both of identity and power, makes Porter an insecure soul” (Mukherjee, 2016, p. 134). Jimmy Porter blames class and the status system of society for making his existence and identity meaningless. He likes Cliff only because he (Cliff) calls himself a “common man”:
CLIFF: Well, I suppose he and I think the same about a lot of things because we’re alike in some ways. We both come from working people if you like. Oh I know some of his mother’s relatives are pretty posh, but he hates them as much as he hates yours. Don’t quite know why. Anyway, he gets on with me because I’m common. (Grins.) Common as dirt, that’s me. (Osborne, 2016, p. 24).
He seems dissatisfied as he was born outside of his own time in a completely static, hostile, and unjust society; thus, he is unable to find any meaning. Engrossed in the ‘Edwardian twilight,’ Jimmy has lost touch with existence and identity in the present: “the core of Jimmy’s emotional life —about which he is thrillingly articulate— is the feeling of loss, obviously related to the death of his father. The loss taught him not only anger, the central emotion powering the play, but also betrayal — loyalty is Jimmy’s core value” (Sierz, 2008, p. 18). He was ten years old when his father died. The death of his father greatly influenced his personality. Jimmy says:
Anyone who’s never watched somebody die is suffering from a pretty bad case of virginity. (His good humour of a moment ago deserts him, as he begins to remember.) For twelve months, I watched my father dying – when I was ten years old. He’d come back from the war in Spain, you see. And certain God-fearing gentlemen there had made such a mess of him, he didn’t have long left to live. Everyone knew it – even I knew it. (He moves R.) But, you see, I was the only one who cared. (Turns to the window.) His family were embarrassed by the whole business. Embarrassed and irritated. (Looking out.) As for my mother, all she could think about was the fact that she had allied herself to a man who seemed to be on the wrong side in all things. (…) Every time I sat on the edge of his bed, to listen to him talking or reading to me, I had to fight back my tears. At the end of twelve months, I was a veteran. (He leans forwards on the back of the armchair.) All that feverish failure of a man had to listen to him was a small, frightened boy. I spent hour upon hour in that tiny bedroom. He would talk to me for hours, pouring out all that was left of his life to one, lonely, bewildered little boy, who could barely understand half of what he said. (…) You see, I learnt at an early age what it was to be angry – angry and helpless. And I can never forget it. (Sits.) I knew more about – love … betrayal … and death, when I was ten years old than you will probably ever know all your life (Osborne, 2016, pp. 58-59).
He yearns for the companionship of anyone with whom he can share his opinions and sentiments about society and religion, which causes him frustration, disillusionment, and nihilism. From Jimmy’s perspective, he has experienced nothing but hardship and pain in his quest for identity and existence. He tends to see everything through a pessimistic lens, which inevitably leads to demolishing all-established institutions and social values. As a result, he attempts to transform everything around him to meet his own expectations, yet, he is unable to fulfil his intense desire for the reconstruction of the external world. His inability to modify or reconstruct the people and institutions around him drives him to develop his own set of beliefs and ideas. As Yasar (2015) posits,
Look Back in Anger reveals the isolation of the first generation of the post-war British society from the concepts such as society, religion, the institution of middle-class marriage, the individual past, and idea of Englishness by making serious judgements about all the established institutions before 1945 (p. 14).
Jimmy’s effort to discover his true identity heightens his sense of insecurity. We discover him in the midst of a class and gender battle. Cliff and Jimmy; two of the four main characters, are from the working class, while Alison and Helena are from the upper class. This caused social and sexual friction, resulting in Jimmy Porter’s identity dilemma. He feels unmanly because of Alison’s higher standing, and he also fails to arouse warm sexual feelings in his wife. Furthermore, Jimmy’s personal trauma related to the death of his father and the subsequent abandonment of his mother also played a pivotal role in shaping his personal identity. Moreover, his personal identity can also be related on a collective level, influenced by the changing socio-cultural environment (1950s Britain).
This analysis of the character of Jimmy Porter from a psychoanalytical perspective forcefully proves that Jimmy, the main character in Look Back in Anger by Osborne, was a frustrated, disillusioned and hopeless “angry young man” belonging to the “silent generation”. He strives to search for identity and existence in a society that is completely hostile to his point of view. M. Halbwachs in Collective Memory states that the community’s shared past helps shape collective identity. In this case, the Angry Young Man Movement linked not just Jimmy but all the youth who felt that their narrative was disturbed.
Unmasking the Real Jimmy Porter
The quest for identity is perhaps the most salient feature of Jimmy’s unconscious desire and the main agenda for the youth of the fifties. Many theories can be found that support the argument that trauma (especially those experienced in childhood) has a great impact on memory and self-perception; “the trauma violates the schemata of the person, is therefore hard to process and as a result becomes poorly integrated into the self-narratives of the person” (Berntsen & Rubin, 2007, p. 417). Based on narrative psychology, identity is perceived as a story that is internal and evolving, that is to say, identity is a narrative that an individual constructs to make sense of the world at large: “the stories people construct and tell about themselves to define who they are for themselves and others” (McAdams, 2006, p. 4).
Following this theorisation of identity, it is observed that individuals with PDs (personality disorder) experiences deficits in the self-narrative, thus, creating gaps and discontinuities in self-perception and behaviour. Jimmy Porter lacks a mature identity, resulting from the trauma he faced on a personal and collective level. His identity crisis is the major contributor to his pathological insecurity, thus, leading him to develop narcissistic tendencies; “[i]n its clinical manifestations, narcissism implies pathological insecurity” (Durvasula, 2019, p. 28).
Narcissism may be defined as “[a] pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behaviour), need for admiration, and lack of empathy, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts” (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, p. 669). NPD is built on these primary foundations, and the frequent portrayal of these traits may hint at narcissism. Durvasula, in her book, Don’t You Know Who I am? brilliantly details “The Five Clusters of Narcissism”, which are, in essence, traits narcissists exhibit. As she suggests, “narcissism is a pattern that is actually made up of lots of other traits, patterns, and behaviors. (…) If a person consistently [emphasis added] exhibits the patterns (…) on a regular basis, with little self-reflection, then it creeps into darker corners of toxicity and narcissism” (Durvasula, 2019, p. 44).
At an interpersonal level, the narcissist often demonstrates patterns that hurt and cause discomfort to the people around them. It is perhaps the most painful experience as they are interpersonal in nature. It is clear that Alison Porter is the victim of much of his abuse: “JIMMY: Behold the Lady Pusillanimous. (Shouting hoarsely.) Hi, Pusey! When’s your next picture? (Jimmy watches her, waiting for her to break)” (Osborne, 2016, p. 17). Jimmy clearly lacks empathy; in its pathological manifestation, it is “observed when the person rarely cares what anyone is experiencing or feeling” (Durvasula, 2019, p. 48). He simply does not care what other people are feeling, thus resulting in him making careless and often times hurtful as this dialogue suggests:
JIMMY: Oh, my dear wife, you’ve got so much to learn. I only hope you learn it one day. If only something—something would happen to you, and wake you out of your beauty sleep! (Coming in close to her.) If you could have a child, and it would die. (…) (She retreats away from him.) Please—if only I could watch you face that. (Osborne, 2016, p. 36)
Jimmy is abusive not only to his wife but also detests her family, “JIMMY: (Capable of anything now) I’ve got every right. That old bitch should be dead! (To ALISON)” (Osborne, 2016, p. 53); “JIMMY: Sounds rather like Daddy, don’t you think? CLIFF: Don’t take any notice of him. He’s being offensive. And it’s so easy for him” (Osborne, 2016, p. 7). Although it was stated earlier that Jimmy likes Cliff only because he (Cliff) calls himself a “common man” that does not help him in escaping Jimmy’s tirade: “JIMMY: What do you want to read it for, anyway? You’ve no intellect, no curiosity. It all just washes over you. Am I right? CLIFF: Right. JIMMY: What are you, you Welsh trash?” (Osborne, 2016, p. 76)
Due to his lack of empathy, Jimmy makes thoughtless, dismissive, and unkind statements which make the victims feel dismissed, underserving, unseen, and unheard. “It is a pattern—a pattern of making dismissive, unkind, or thoughtless statements or gestures, which are often followed by (insincere) apologies” (Durvasula, 2019, p. 64). “CLIFF: She’s burnt her arm on the iron. JIMMY: Darling, I’m sorry. JIMMY: I’m sorry, believe me. You think I did it on purpose— ALISON: (her head shaking helplessly) Clear out of my sight! (He stares at her uncertainly)” (Osborne, 2016, p. 22). Durvasula states that understanding narcissistic abuse is complex and sometimes not always well articulated. However,
It is a pattern of psychological neglect, invalidation in dehumanization that causes significant stress or psychological harm or distress to the individual who is the subject of such abuse. (…) what it’s characterized by is: chronic invalidation; lack of compassion; lack of respect; lack of what we call mutuality back and forth and a sort of a cold indifference (10:26 – 11:01); The ‘love’ that narcissist sell it’s something very superficial; it is something that lacks the depth that a healthy intimate relationship has (MedCircle 2020, 12:33 – 12:47)
Narcissists are insecure beings and constantly feel out of control, therefore, they regulate their self-esteem from the outside, “they often attempt to exert tremendous control over their external worlds, and this includes relationships, their environments, and other people” (Durvasula, 2019, p. 55). It becomes pathological when it is a prevailing dynamic in relationships. Jimmy limits Alison’s contact with the outside world, including her family and friends; as he says “either you’re with me or against me” (Osborne, 2016, p. 91). Jimmy tries so desperately to regulate things around him, he cannot even bare to listen to churning bells, “Wrap it up, will you? Stop ringing those bells! There’s somebody going crazy in here! I don’t want to hear them!” (Osborne, 2016, p. 20). This may be seen as a subtle form of grandiose behaviourism as the bells and “noisy women” drown out his voice and heaven forbid for “hell hath no fury like a pissed-off narcissist” (Durvasula, 2019, p. 67).
Desire for or lack of control often makes narcissists paranoid; from a cognitive perspective paranoia is defined as “a strong tendency to feel that you cannot trust other people or that other people have bad opinion of you. (…) Because narcissists are so hypersensitive and insecure, they experience everything as a threat, and this can escalate to the level of paranoia” (Durvasula, 2019, p. 88). In short, it is the overreaching belief that everyone and everything is out to get them: “ALISON: It isn’t easy to explain. It’s what he would call a question of allegiances, and he expects you to be pretty literal about them. Not only about himself and all the things he believes in, his present and his future, but his past as well” (Osborne, 2016, p. 40). And in order to deal with their paranoia, narcissists tend to seek assurance by means of other mannerisms, thus developing poor boundaries. This is a more informal way of saying that narcissists are impertinent. Boundary violation can take a number of forms, from unwanted physical contact to violating privacy.
CLIFF: (Indicating Alison’s handbag) Wouldn’t you say that that was her private property? JIMMY: You’re quite right. But do you know something? Living night and day with another human being has made me predatory and suspicious. (…) When she goes out, I go through everything —trunks, cases, drawers, bookcase, everything. Why? To see if there is something of me somewhere, a reference to me. I want to know if I’m being betrayed (Osborne, 2016, p. 35).
It should be noted, however, that not all narcissists present themselves as pumped-up grandiose monsters; there is another side of narcissism: the “covert vulnerable narcissist,” according to Durvasula: the ones who play the wolf in sheep’s clothing. Jimmy Porter’s actions align with this specific trait set. Covert narcissists are not showy or grandiose in an obvious manner. Instead, they believe the world does not understand their special, unique, or great abilities. They also believe the world owes them something and maintain a brooding anger about not having received the things that they believe they deserve. They tend to be resentful of the world, of people in their social sphere and in their family, and of anyone whom they perceive to have a better life than they do. Narcissists cannot regulate emotion, and so they are prone to anger and rage-fuelled actions; if anything fails to go according to the wishes of the narcissists, they go completely berserk. Their interactions with other people tend to be hostile, and it is in this way that covert narcissism also closely resembles traditional narcissism:
COLONEL: (…) You were afraid of being disloyal to your husband. ALISON: Disloyal! (She laughs.) He thought it was high treason of me to write to you at all! (…) COLONEL: He really does hate us, doesn’t he? ALISON: Oh yes – don’t have any doubts about that. He hates all of us (Osborne, 2016, p. 67).
In relation to the social and cultural context of post-Second World War Britain, Jimmy as an individual is observed to be exploitative and vindictive. This is partly due to the fact that he never received the ideal world he has always dreamt of, thus, he portrays himself as the victim of circumstances. He is notoriously disloyal, and he seeks to marry Alison only to serve his means for revenge: “Some people do actually marry for revenge. People like Jimmy, anyway” (Osborne, 2016, p. 69); revenge for the identity he never received and the deep-rooted attachment issues he has with his parents.
ALISON: (…). Mummy has always said that Jimmy is utterly ruthless, but she hasn’t met Hugh. He takes the first prize for ruthlessness – from all comers. Together, they were frightening. They both came to regard me as a sort of hostage from those sections of society they had declared war on. (…) ALISON: Just about everyone I’d ever known. Your people must have been among the few we missed out. It was just enemy territory to them, and, as I say, they used me as a hostage. (…) we’d gatecrash everywhere – cocktails, weekends, even a couple of houseparties. I used to hope that one day, somebody would have the guts to slam the door in our faces, but they didn’t. They were too well bred, and probably sorry for me as well. Hugh and Jimmy despised them for it. So we went on plundering them, wolfing their food and drinks, and smoking their cigars like ruffians. Oh, they enjoyed themselves (Osborne, 2016, p. 43).
Muller claims that Jimmy is a typical Freudian case of “secondary narcissism” caused by parental absence:
His father must have signified an idealized male working-class role model for Jimmy, as he fought for the Communist Brigades in the Spanish civil war during which deadly wounds were inflicted upon him. This idealization of the father hero is even strengthened by the fact that Jimmy was the only representative of his family who, at the age of ten, remained at his father’s deathbed. It is crucial to note the massive impact that this experience must have had on young Jimmy’s psychological disposition: according to Freud, the attributes of a loved person lost in childhood are persistently internalized and become a part of one’s own identity in order to overcome grief of loss (Muller, 2015, p. 176).
Personality pathology with regards to object relation also reveals that Jimmy is an insecure soul, caused by the lack of identity integration, and as such, he torments those who surround him as a means of coping with his meaningless existence. As Schlüssel (2005) suggests, “The loosening of parental ties and the respective states of insecurity are being met by means of adopting a sense of greatness and by taking up relationships which tend to be narcissistic and, thus, assist in fostering this sense of grandeur” (p. 386).
After the Second World War, there was a general sense of disillusionment in humanity. People saw real horrors, and amidst those horrors, they came to question the meaning of life and were in doubt if it was worth living in a society that seemed to lack a sense of identity and purpose. Jimmy’s constant rant for meaning and “human enthusiasm” in an age of general discontentment seems rather a pitiful spectacle. “There aren’t any good, brave causes left” became the motto of the era. Yet, not all individuals born during that time turned out to be like Jimmy or develop a deficiency in personality development.
As a spokesperson for an entire generation, Jimmy Porter became synonymous with the Angry Young Man movement. It must be made clear that the scope of this research has been to solely investigate Jimmy’s personality. His frustration, anger, and mean-spiritedness lead him to obsess over the present, which, coupled with his desire for control and change, leads him to develop an extreme psychological disorder.
Jimmy is an extremely disturbed individual experiencing a crisis concerning identity; his alienation, idealisation of the past, and use of memory as a form of rationalisation take him on a darker path to make sense of the world. A rebel without a cause and a self-glorified gossipmonger, he wants to mean; a chance to cry out, ‘I Am Jimmy Porter!’; it is about ‘Me, and me alone.’ Yet, he does not do anything about it. Instead, he blames, verbally abuses, and attacks the people who are closest to him, and in that, there is no redeemable quality. Therefore, it can be said that Jimmy is a narcissist suffering from a pathological case of personality disorder caused by the trauma of the identity crisis he faced on a personal and collective level.
American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2013). Diagnostic and Statical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition), DSM-5. CBS Publishers.
Berntsen, D., & Rubin, D. C. (2007). When a Trauma Becomes a Key to Identity: Enhanced Integration of Trauma Memories Predicts Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 417−431. DOI:10.1002/acp.1290.
Dimaggio, G. (2011). Impoverished Self-Narrative and Impairs Self-Reflection as Targets for the Psychotherapy of Personality Disorders. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 165 – 174. DOI: 10.1007/s10879-010-9170-0.
Durvasula, R. S. (2019). “Don’t You Know Who I Am?” How to Stay Sane in an Era of Narcissism, Entitlement, and Incivility. Post Hill Press.
Jørgensen, C. R. (2018). Identity. In W. John Livesley & Roseann Larstone (Eds.), Handbook of Personality Disorders Theory, Research, and Treatment (2nd Edition), (pp. 107−122). The Guilford Press.
Klein, S. B. & Nicolas, S. (2012). Memory and the Sense of Personal Identity. Mind, 121(483), 677−702. DOI: 10.1093/mind/fzs080
Levesque, R. J. R. (2011). Ego Identity. In Roger J. R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of Adolescence (2nd ed.), (pp. 1144 – 1145). Springer.
Lind, M., Adler, J. M., & Clark, L. A. (2020). Narrative Identity and Personality Disorder: An Empirical and Conceptual Review. Current Psychiatry Report, 22 (12). 67. DOI: 10.1997/s11920-0202-01187-8
McAdams, D. P. (2001). The Psychology of Life Stories. Review of General Psychology, 5(2), 100 – 122. DOI: 10.1037/1089-26184.108.40.206
—— (2006), “Introduction.” In Dan P. McAdams, Ruthellen Josselson, & Amia Lieblich (Eds.), Identity and Story: Creating Self in Narrative (Narrative Study of Lives), American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/11414-000.
MedCircle (2020, May 19). ‘Narcissism vs narcissistic personality disorder: How to Spot the Difference’ Dr. Ramani Durvasula in conversation with Kyle Kittleson. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IEfS-_a21kk. Accessed on, 30 June 2021.
Melucci, A. (1995). The Process of Collective Identity. In Hank Johnston & Bert Klandermans (Eds.), Social Movements and Culture, (pp. 41-63). University of Minnesota Press.
Mukherjee, S. (2016). Of Anger and Disempowerment: Jimmy Porter(ing) Between two Worlds. In G. J. V. Prasad (Ed.), Look Back in Anger by John Osborne, (pp. 130-141). Pearson India Education Services Pvt Ltd.
Muller, S. (2015) From Angry Young Scholarship Boy to Male Role Model: The Rise of the Working-Class Hero. Retrieved from
Osborne, J. (2016). Look Back in Anger. Pearson India Education Services Pvt Ltd.
Oyserman, D., Elmore, K., & Smith, G. (2012). Self, Self-concept, and Identity. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (2nd Edition), (pp. 69-104). The Guilford Press.
Schlüssel, A. (2005). Making a Political Statement or Refusing to Grow up—Reflections on the Situation of the Academic Youth in Postwar Britain Literature. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 65(4), 381−403. DOI: 10.1007/s11231-005-7889-2
Sierz, A. (2008). John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger. Continuum International Publishing.
Sokol, J. T. (2009). Identity Development Throughout the Lifetime: An Examination of Eriksonian Theory. Graduate Journal of Counselling Psychology, 1(2), 139 – 148.
Yaşar, E. (2015). The Alienation of the First Generation of Post-War British Society in Light of Look Back in Anger by John Osborne. International Journal of Media Culture and Literature, 1(2), 13−26. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ijmcl/issue/31751/348016